Textbook chapters (only one of the following books is necessary, the information covered in the concept questions is
found in each of the books).

•        Chapter 3:  Anatomy and Physiology  by OpenStax College
•        Chapter 3:  Visual Anatomy and Physiology by Martini and Ober
•        Chapters 3 and 4:  Hole’s Anatomy and Physiology by Shier, Butler, and Lewis

NOTE:  This unit is a review of much of the information covered in Biology 150 (a recommended pre-req for this
course).  If you did not take Bio 150, you will need to plan on extra time to learn the information presented in this unit.  
Also, if you have not taken Bio 150 or a chemistry course, it is highly recommended that you read chapter 2 prior to
working on this unit.

1.        Describe the process of cellular differentiation – how does it occur, why is it important, and what is the role of
stem cells?

Concept Storyline:  Differentiation

2.        Describe the structure and function of the cell plasma membrane, including both the phospholipid and protein

Concept Storyline:  Cell Membrane

3.        Describe the location and function of the cell cytoplasm and cytoskeleton.

Concept Storyline:  Cytoskeleton

4.        Compare and contrast the structure and function of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and describe
how each relates to the Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and ribosomes.

Concept Storyline:  Endomembrane System

5.        Describe the role of the cell nucleus as a control center in information storage as it relates to DNA, RNA,
transcription, and translation.

Concept Storyline: Transcription and Translation

6.        Compare and contrast the structure and function of codons, genes, and chromosomes.

Concept Storyline:  Chromosomes

7.        Compare and contrast movement through freely permeable and selectively permeable membranes as it relates to
diffusion, osmosis, and active transport.

Concept Storyline:  Membrane Permeability

8.        Describe the relative concentrations of ions and water in cells subjected to isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic

Concept Storyline:  Tonicity

9.        Compare and contrast the processes of endocytosis, exocytosis, and phagocytosis.

Concept Storyline:  Cytosis

10.        Describe the importance of the cell cycle and describe the events occurring during each of the following cell
cycle phases:  interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

Concept Storyline:  Cell Cycle

11.        Describe cell growth and the role of mutations in cancer.

 Concept Storyline:  Cancer
Michelle Murphy, M.S., M.Ed.
Lake Region State College