Textbook chapters (only one of the following books is necessary, the information covered in the concept questions is
found in each of the books).

•        Chapter 2 and Sections 10.2-10.3 (energy information only), 12.3-12.4, and 24.2:  Anatomy and Physiology  by
OpenStax College
•        Chapter 2 and Sections 9.4, 9.9, 11.5-11.10, 22.1 and 22.4:  Visual Anatomy and Physiology by Martini and Ober
•        Chapter 2 and Sections 4.4-4.5, 9.3 (energy information only), and 10.5-10.6:  Hole’s Anatomy and Physiology by
Shier, Butler, and Lewis

1.        Describe the three main types of subatomic particles and how each contributes to the identity of elements, ions,
and isotopes.

           
Concept Storyline:  Atom

2.        Know the name, symbol, relative concentration (%), and significance of the following elements in the human
body:  O, C, H, N, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mg, Fe, I

            
Concept Storyline:  Body Elements

3.        Describe why elements form chemical bonds and compare and contrast the behavior of electrons in ionic,
covalent, and hydrogen bonds.

            
Concept Storyline:  Chemical Bonds

4.        Describe the molecular and energy inputs and outputs during each stage of the aerobic respiration process
(glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and electron transport chain/system).

           
Concept Storyline: Aerobic Respiration

           Video: Aerobic Respiration

5.        Describe the role of enzymes, catalysts, and cofactors in metabolic pathways.

             
Concept Storyline:  Enzymes

6.        Describe the properties and biological functions of electrolytes, particularly as they relate to osmotic balance.

             
Concept Storyline:  Electrolytes

7.        Compare and contrast the properties and outcomes of acidosis versus alkalosis in the body, and the role of buffer
systems in these conditions.

             
Concept Storyline:  Blood Acidity

8.        Compare and contrast the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

              
Concept Storyline:  Organic Molecules

9.        Describe the relationship between ATP and ADP in terms of structure and energy level.

              
Concept Storyline:  ATP

10.        Describe the relationship between synapses and neurotransmitters as they relate to chemical and electrical
gradients.

              
Concept Storyline:  Synapses

11.        Describe the role of each of the following over the timespan of an action potential:  gated channel, sodium,
potassium, depolarization, repolarization, refractory period, threshold.

              
Concept Storyline:  Action Potential
Michelle Murphy, M.S., M.Ed.
Lake Region State College